CO2 Emissions and the Heat Treatment Industry

For years CO2 emissions have been a very hot topic in Europe but little talked about in North America. However under the current US and Canadian administrations emissions are being discussed more and more. “The Monty Heat Treat News” would be derelict in our duties if we did not look into what impact CO2 emissions will have on the heat treatment industry and so we turned to one of the foremost experts in the heat treatment industry, our good friend Mr. Thomas Doppler of furnace builder Aichelin. Thomas recently moved into a position where he will be in charge of CO2 emissions for the entire company;

“Thomas Dopler, who has been working within AICHELIN Group in many different functions for over 13 years, is the new Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of AICHELIN Holding GmbH. In this role, he is responsible for positioning AICHELIN Group as a technology partner of the industry to contribute to a further reduction of CO2 emissions in heat treatment. In addition Thomas also recently became Chief Executive Officer at Berndorf Innovations & Technology GmbH (Berndorf Group is the parent company of Aichelin and Berndorf Innovations & Technology).”

Over the course of the next few months Thomas will be providing us with a number of articles about the subject which will include;

  • A questionnaire (which appears below) about CO2 emissions from various sources including cars and the very act of breathing
  • How do different forms of heat treatment process vary in emissions
  • What is the Aichelin strategy for emissions
  • How do electrically heated furnaces compare with gas and hydrogen?
  • High Efficiency Burners.

In addition we are looking forward to hearing Thomas in person when he joins us for another “Heat Treat Podcast” with our host Mr. Carlos Torres.

1) Human Breathing: How much CO2 is emitted on average per person each year through Breathing?

  • 84 pounds?
  • 160 pounds per year?
  • 840 pounds?
  • 1800 pounds?

Answer; 840 Pounds. The average human exhales about 2.3 pounds of carbon dioxide on an average day, so per year this is roughly 840 pounds.

2) CO2 absorption per tree (assuming a lifespan of 40 years); What is the average CO2 absorption of a single tree during their lifetime?

  • .5 tons CO2?
  • 1 ton of CO2?
  • 2 tons C02?
  • 4 tons of CO2?

Answer: 2 Tons. The CO2 absorption capacity depends on the type of tree and the resulting density. With a few exceptions, deciduous wood has a higher density than evergreens and can therefore absorb a greater amount of CO2 over their life cycle. However a good average is that a single tree will absorb 48 pounds of carbon dioxide per year. This means it will sequester approximately 2 tons of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old (note that this is a very variable number depending upon whether the tree is mature or not and the type of tree).

3) A 2021 Dodge Ram pickup truck has an average CO2 emission of 352 grams. What is the annual impact for a mileage of 15,000 miles per year?

  • 7 tons of CO2?
  • 70 tons of CO2?
  • 150 tons of CO2?
  • 703 tons of CO2?

Answer: 7 Tons of CO2. 20.000 km * 352 g/km = 7 tons of CO2

4) What is the average CO2 emission per person per year around the world? This would include all factors including breathing, manufacturing, driving, eating and travelling to name a few. 

  • 2 tons of CO2 per person?
  • 4 tons of CO2 per person?
  • 8 tons of CO2 per person?

Answer: 4 Tons. The global average is 4 tons per person but this varies geographically . The frontrunner is the state of Qatar, which recorded a value of 31.27 tons/capita in calendar year 2019. Austria emits about 6.96 tons/person, which is above the global average. USA – 16,14 tons/person. Germany – 9,15 tons/person. China – 7,95 tons/person

5) What are the approximate total CO2 emissions of a Mercedes E220d? This includes car production, fuel production, driving operation, and the end-of-life cycle.

  • 3.6 tons of CO2?
  • 360 tons of CO2?
  • 3600 tons CO2?
  • 36 tons of CO2?

Answer: 36 Tons. 10 years of 3 tons + 6 tons production footprint = 36 tons

6) The CO2 tax is an environmental tax on the emissions of carbon dioxide and, if applicable, other climate-relevant greenhouse gases. The aim is to reduce emissions and the resulting negative effects through levies and penalties. What is the current tax per ton of CO2 in Canada? (note that the USA and Mexico do not have carbon taxes).

  • $0 USD per ton of CO2?
  • $40 USD per ton of CO2?
  • $80 USD per ton of CO2?
  • $150 USD per ton of CO2?

Answer: Canada has a tax of $40 USD per ton. Canada currently charges $40 USD per ton with plans to raise it to $135 USD per tonne by 2030.

7) How many tons of CO2 emissions are created in the building of a typical Batch IQ (MPCF Multi Purpose Chamber Furnace)? We will use the example of a furnace with working dimensions of 36” X 48” X 36” (900 mm X 1200 X 900) , with a 3500 pound capacity (1587 kg) and which will operate at 1700F (950C). A typical furnace this size would incorporate 20 tons of steel and about 10 tons of brick insulation.

  • 6000 tons CO2
  • 60 tons CO2
  • 6 tons CO2
  • 600 600 CO2

Answer: 50-60 Tons of CO2. 20 tons of steel and 10 tons of insulation equals 50 – 60 tons of CO2

 8) Using the furnace example above, a batch furnace with a weight capacity of 3500 pound capacity (1587 kg) and operating at a temperature of  1700F (950C), what would be the average CO2 emissions per year at full capacity utilization and 90% availability?

  • 4 tons CO2 per year?
  • 40 tons CO2 per year?
  • 400 tons CO2 per year?
  • 4000 tons CO2 per year?

Answer: 400 Tons per Year. Depending on the process and the load size the average Batch IQ Furnace emits around 250 tons/year. However depending upon efficiency of the furnace and size of the loads this could increase to 400 tons per year.

9) By what factor is the price per kWh of electricity higher than that of gas on the Michigan market?

  • Factor =
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Answer: Michigan: [2021] industrial electricity rate industry .122 USD per/kWh industrial gas rate industry $7.58 USD per Thousand Cubic Feet.

10) What is the percentage of renewable energy in the Chinese electrical mix?

  • approx. 10%?
  • approx. 30%?
  • approx. 50%?
  • approx. 90%?

Answer: 30%. The amount of renewable energy in China has risen sharply in recent years. Currently renewable energy accounts for just under 30% of China’s energy system. By comparison, Austria has a share of just under 75% renewable energy.

11) How much CO2 does the entire global steel industry emit per year? [2020 production was 1.9 million tons of steel]

  • 3.8 million tons CO2?
  • 38 million tons CO2?
  • 380 million tons CO2?
  • 3.800 million tons CO2?

Answer: 3.9 million Tons Per Year. 2020, about 1.900 million tons of steel were produced worldwide. With an emission factor of 2, this results in 3.800 million tons of CO2 per year. Austria’s voestalpine produced  around 7.42million tons of crude steel at its production site in Linz (2019). With an emission factor of 1.678 t(Co2)/t, this results in emissions of 12.45 million tons. The national steel industry is responsible for around 10% of Austria’s CO2 emissions.

12) How many tons of CO2 emissions do all installed Aichelin industrial furnaces produce per year? (hint; in multi chamber furnaces alone Aichelin has over 3000 multi chamber furnaces installed) 150 mio. t CO2 per year

  • 15 million tons CO2 per year?
  • 1.5 million tons CO2 per year?
  • 150 million tons CO2 per year?

Answer: 150 million tons per year. simplified 3000 multi chamber furnaces + 600 pusher-type furnaces + 50% rest (3000*250+600*400)*1,5 = 1,485*10^6

13) How many tons of CO2 would an average user reduce their emissions by annually by converting the above-mentioned furnaces to the latest generations of Noxmat Etamat burners? (The associated increase in efficiency is around +10%)

  • 150,000 tons CO2 per year?
  • 1.50 million tons CO2 per year?
  • 15 million tons CO2 per year?
  • 150 million tons CO2 per year?

Answer: 150,000 tons per year. With a 10% increase in burner efficiency a user would see on average a savings of 150,000 tons/year of CO2 emissions.